Speed Awareness Courses

I am frequently asked for information about speed awareness courses. The most common questions seek clarity over eligibility, and whether a course can be requested. This short guide is intended to help answer these and other questions.

The first rule applying to such courses is that a driver cannot attend one if they have already within the previous three years completed one.

There are also speed thresholds applicable to such courses and they are as follows

20 mph – 24 to 31 mph inclusive

30 mph – 35 to 42 mph inclusive

40 mph 46 to 53 mph inclusive

50 mph – 57 to 64 [read on]

Keep the right side of the law when driving in the snow

Much of the UK has been hit with severe weather over the past few days. The plummeting temperature can lead to all sorts of problems for road users if they're not careful enough.

While most drivers will know the importance of clearing the car windscreen sufficiently, many may not be aware that failing to brush snow off the car roof can land you with a fine of £60 and points on your licence.

Under section 229 of the Highway Code it clearly explains how drivers should prepare their car before they set off in adverse weather conditions - You must be able to see, so clear all snow [read on]

Section 172 Notice - Practical Advice

NIP 172 get proof of postageWhen police request driver details.

Section 172 Road Traffic Act requirements - Some simple practical advice.

These notices are issued in huge numbers across the UK every week and yet they often cause difficulty.

What happens when the police say they never received it back and claim it can’t have been posted to them?

On the 10 October 2017 the High Court clarified this issue.

The Section 172 Notice procedure requires a written and signed response from the registered keeper giving details of the driver. That’s the easy part. If the police start proceedings saying it never [read on]

Moving House? Another Item for the Checklist..

Moving house? Inform DVLAMoving house?

No, I don’t do conveyancing but I frequently deal with drivers who have and who have got into difficulty because they did not notify DVLA when they move.

DVLA requires you to tell them when your address changes so your driving licence, vehicle log book (V5C) and vehicle tax are up to date.

This includes if you’re temporarily moving home (if you’re going to university, for example).

It’s a free service and can be done online, but not doing it can cause serious problems if for example you are caught speeding by camera or committing many other road [read on]

How Average Speed Cameras Work


Those who use a number of Smart Motorways in the UK will be very familiar with HADECS 3 speed cameras. It is short for Highway Agency Digital Enforcement Camera System 3, and is one the newest speed cameras to be installed on UK roads.

They are simple to operate and are very accurate. There is no limit to the number of motorists they can photograph. In total three photos are taken when a passing vehicle triggers the speed threshold of the HADECS. The photographs are then automatically encrypted and sent to be analysed by enforcement staff. Two of the pictures provide a secondary [read on]

To pee or not to pee; that is the question....

Failure to provide a urine sampleLast year I successfully defended a number of drivers charged with failing to provide a urine sample when required to do so by police during a drink drive investigation. It has become a specialism and these cases require a high degree of technical skill and know how.

The law is easily explained using a couple of examples, based on prosecutions I defended.

Late one afternoon police stopped a driver on a main road in Surrey because they were concerned about his driving. The officers suspected he had been drinking and as part of the investigation into whether he had actually been doing so they [read on]

2014 Christmas Drink Driving Campaign

Christmas Drink driving CampaignIt’s that time of year again.

Pretty well every police force will shortly be starting its annual Christmas drink drive campaign, but this year it will be a little different as forces also seek to apprehend those who drive whilst under the influence of drugs.

There has long been a problem for the police, and that is the absence of a quick method of determining if a driver has drugs in his body. At the beginning of this year it was announced that police forces would have access to “spitalysers” , devices that can be used at the road side to instantly indicate if a driver has taken cannabis. The police have long been able to use breath testing devices to test for alcohol, but drug impairment has always been difficult to measure without blood samples (which take a while to test) and evidence of impairment. Whilst the devices are not going to be ready for Christmas, police are nonetheless upping their game on drug driving.

No one will condone drink or drug driving, but there does need to be an awareness of the legal framework that applies in all such cases. This year is also different for another reason; Scotland will shortly change its law to reduce the limit from 80 in blood to only 50. Drivers crossing the border might be legal in England and Wales but illegal in Scotland.

Drivers will need to be particularly aware of the side effects of prescribed drugs and those purchased over the counter. This applies to a number of pick me ups that deal with flu and cold symptoms. Earlier this year the driving limits for 8 prescribed drugs were published.

A good number of these are present in frequently used medications and drivers do need to have an awareness of this. It creates a serious problem; what to do with a driver who has taken completely legal drugs on prescription and had no knowledge he would be affected? The courts will be dealing with those who have taken illegal drugs with the sole intention of getting high, and those who have taken legal ones with the sole intention of getting better or just being able to get through the day.


Spot checks purely to determine if someone is drink driving are not strictly legal but the police need only give a simple reason for stopping or enquiring. Once engaged in conversation the police will look for glazed eyes or the smell of alcohol.

The police will bring an allegation of driving whilst unfit through drugs if they have reason to believe that you were driving a motor vehicle on a road or other public place after consuming drugs and if that your driving was impaired as a consequence. The police might have followed you for a bit and seen how you drove, or you might have been involved in an accident to which the police were called. The accident might not even have been your fault, but if you show signs that you have drugs in your body you will likely face an investigation.

Sussex Police are warning that motorists charged with drink or drug driving offences throughout December can expect to see their names published as part of a continued crackdown on offenders. They did it last year and whilst the deterrent motives are understandable, some drivers will be named and shamed who are never in fact convicted. It is understandably controversial.

Drug and drink driving are very technical areas of law with all kinds of safeguards built into the process, and inevitably some prosecutions are not successful for perfectly proper reasons.

I expect other forces to be similarly vigorous with publicity campaigns to increase awareness and to encourage reports by members of the public. In fact this year Susses is going to run its campaign jointly with Surrey. I am sure Kent and Essex will be similarly vigorous with drink and drug driving.  

Something what is frequently overlooked by drivers is the effect of morning after driving, and driving after a train journey from work. The rate at which the body metabolises alcohol is easily misjudged and a heavy night’s drinking followed by an early drive to work can catch people out. The same is true with those who enjoy a drink in London after work and take a train home. Many commuter stations have police ready to check and I have represented a good many caught out. It’s a mistake to think that some sleep or strong coffee will help; they don’t get rid of the alcohol. 

Excessive Speed

SpeedingThere was much furore recently on news that a driver in his 20's had been convicted of driving at speeds up to 149 mph on the M25 near Swanley in Kent.

The man appeared at West Kent Magistrates court in March and was banned for 6 months, fined £600 and required to pay costs and a victim surcharge amounting to £150.

The story was released by the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) following a freedom of information request. Which also revealed other drivers guilty of driving significantly over the speed limit. Other cases included:

  • a driver in Gateshead recorded doing 96 mph in a 30 mph zone.
  • a motorist near Wendover caught doing 127 mph in a 60 mph area.
  • a driver recorded doing 119 mph on the A414 Stanstead Abbotts which has a 50 mph limit,
  • a motorist  caught doing 113 mph in a 40 mph zone speed limit enforcemenin Lincolnshire.

Obviously driving at these sorts of speeds is not to be condoned,. It puts other road users and the drivers themselves in danger. Fortunately stories of such excessive speed are rare.

One less publicised statistic that accompanied the report came via a freedom of information request from Radio Kent. Apparently the number of drivers issued with speeding notices in 2013 was 66,357 up from 34,438 in 2010. That’s almost twice as many motorists being caught speeding in three years.

Are the drivers of Kent driving faster or are Kent Police enforcing speed limits more aggressively?

What do you think?

Laser Jammers and the law

Laser jammers too risky to useAt present there is no law expressly making the use of laser jammers unlawful, but a number of prosecutions arising out of their use makes it risky to use one.

The consequences can be serious.

There are many devices freely and relatively cheaply available for purchase over the internet that are said to perform a variety of functions from parking sensors to opening garage doors. Some are very sophisticated and the function can be switched by the driver.

Using one to interfere with a speed detection device being operated by a police officer could well result in an arrest and charge for perverting the course of justice.

Perverting the course of justice is a serious offence and on conviction carries life imprisonment. Long term imprisonment tends to be reserved for those who interfere with trials or investigations for example by threatening witnesses.

Nonetheless drivers using such devices to stop or interfere with police speed detection do face a Crown Court appearance and a serious risk of prison and disqualification.

I represented a client who was travelling at a speed modestly in excess of the speed limit. He approached a Traffic Officer deploying a laser device to check his speed, and on each occasion he attempted to do so the device showed “error”.

The Officer was sure something was stopping the device from registering the speed, although it did perform its normal function of recording the vehicle. The video enabled the speed of the vehicle to be checked, by working out how long it took to pass fixed points.  It was easy to see the vehicle was speeding.

In this instance the police obtained a search warrant and attended my client’s home to search his vehicle. That revealed a device fitted behind the front number plate and a police expert was able to deconstruct it and demonstrate its ability to diffuse the laser beam from the speed gun.

My client was charged with perverting the course of justice and his case moved swiftly from the Magistrates to the Crown Court.

Why perverting the course of justice?

The simple answer is that there is no statutory offence committed (because there is no legislation outlawing the use of these devices) and so there is no alternative, with one minor exception. If the operator of the speed gun is a police officer an alternative might be a charge of obstructing a police officer in the course of his duty. That can be dealt with in the Magistrates Court and can be quickly over.

However there is a problem if the person operating the speed gun is not a police constable as properly defined. Many are not and are Police Support Employees with speed equipment training.

The Crown Prosecution Service or even the court may be very reluctant indeed to see a drop from perverting the course of justice to obstruction if the person obstructed was not a police constable. 

What is perverting the course of justice?

The offence is committed where a person:

  • does an act (a positive act or series of acts is required; mere inaction is insufficient)
  • which has a tendency to pervert and
  • which is intended to pervert
  • the course of public justice.

The course of justice includes the police investigation of a possible crime and it is not necessary for legal proceedings to have begun.

In this way it fits the use of a laser jammer.

In my case we had a very helpful Court who was prepared to view it leniently. The CPS was determined to go to trial over knowledge of what the device would do, but the Judge gave an “indication” of what he would do after a guilty plea, and my client left with a modest fine and a conditional discharge. It could have been far worse but he had good legal advice and excellent counsel.

Driving in Europe in Summer 2012

If you plan to be one of the estimated 2.5 million UK motorists driving in mainland Europe this summer, you need to be aware of the ever lengthening list of things you must take with you and of rules and regulations that will apply in order to make your driving a pleasant experience.

According to research recently carried out by Confused.com nearly two thirds of British drivers experience some form of mishap when travelling abroad. This is a very significant figure, and the research also reveals that something like 25% of British motorists do not check that they have adequate insurance.

The cost of inadequate planning can be very high. Rescue services estimate that 25,000 UK motorists will break down while travelling in Europe and that only a small proportion will have purchased breakdown insurance. On top of that the cost of regulation is rising and the penalties for getting it wrong can be severe. You need to be aware of some old and some very new laws that will apply to you, to make your journey safe and enjoyable. Some European police can be very zealous.

All EU countries have a way of accessing driver details from DVLA and are using UK based companies to collect fines.

In all EU countries the police will issue penalty tickets and spot fines to be paid there and then. You will need cash. If you refuse to pay the penalties can ramp up very quickly.

Here are some general tips to help:

1/ Insurance: Check your insurance policy covers you to drive abroad, and include substitute drivers.  It may be a statement of the obvious, but two aspects in particular need looking at. The first is the extension of the policy to cover you in the event that you have an accident that is your fault and the second is cover for car contents in the event your car is broken into.

British insurance policies are obliged to provide third party cover in EU countries but unless arrangements have been specifically made you may well not have fully comprehensive cover, making repatriation of your car for example a very expensive exercise. If you have an accident abroad and if you write off your car without having extended your cover to fully comprehensive, the expense will be substantial. So the rule is check before departure, and make a written record of anything your insurance company tells you and who you spoke with; better still send a confirmatory e mail. Most insurers now serve customers and provide information through call centres so it’s important to have some record of what you were told should something go wrong. Even if you know your policy will be extended automatically, make sure it will extend to the full period of your holiday.

It is a fact that cars bearing UK number plates are a target because there is a fair chance they contain something worth stealing, and insurers regard some parts of Europe as theft hotspots. So again check with your insurer and be aware that travel insurance may not cover items stolen from cars. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office warns of particular threats and crime trends that target foreign drivers and are worth being aware of.

2/ Breakdown Insurance: Think about European breakdown cover and obtain it if needs be. There is no legal obligation to take out such cover, but a UK based provider will pay dividends if you breakdown somewhere rural and you can’t speak the language well enough. So look at a policy that provides roadside assistance as well as multilingual help.

3/ Documents: The UK is a little more relaxed about the requirement to carry documents with you, but in Europe you may well be asked for documents. You will need to have available a full UK drivers licence not provisional, your original registration document to prove ownership and a copy of your insurance certificate. In fact in France it's compulsory to have the originals with you and so wise to take copies as well.

4/ Seat Belts: In most countries it’s compulsory to wear a seat belt front and rear, and it’s copulsary for all children up to 10 years to travel in the back seat of a car and wear a seat belt or be strapped into a proper child seat.

5/ Age Restrictions: In the UK drivers are able to use any roads from 17 years, as soon as they pass their tests. Not so in France where motorway drivers must be aged 18 and over.

6/ Mobile Phones: It is common for “hands free” systems to be compulsory for mobile telephones use while driving. It’s the same rules as in the UK but in some countries “hands free” systems with earpieces cannot be used.

7/ Satnavs: Satnavs capable of warning of the presence of speed cameras are illegal in some countries and this function must be disabled. If it can’t be disabled then the satnav must not be carried inside the car.

8/ Compulsory Equipment: Headlight beam deflectors are required just about everywhere but most countries have requirements for you to carry additional specified equipment in the car unfortunately the exact equipment required differs by country. You should always check the requirements for the country you will be visiting. The table below gives a summary based on my research but sources do differ on their interpretation of of the individual requirements of each country. To be completely sure I recommend carrying all the equipment stated. It isn’t terribly expensive, adds to safety, and will keep you out of legal trouble. Typical equipment includes:

  • fluorescent safety vest (one per passenger). More specifically, the safety vests must be carried inside the car and not in the boot.
  • Warning triangles for use if you breakdown. be aware that the distance at which you place your triangle behind your vehicle varies by country and some countries require 2 triangles.
  • Spare bulbs and the tools to fit them.
  • First aid kits.
  • Fire extinguishers
  • Spare spectacles if you need them to drive.

9/ Drinking and Driving: Don’t do it. Most of Europe has stricter drink drive laws than the UK. The level is 50 micrograms rather than 80, and so two modest glasses of wine can put you over. The penalties can be severe too. In France for example they can range from a modest fine of 135 Euros for a reading of between 50 and 80 micrograms to two years in prison and 4,500 Euros in fines for readings above. If you have an accident whilst over the limit the fines go up to 30,000 Euros, and even higher up to 150,000 euros in the event of injury or death. The reason is that France has historically had a huge death toll from drinking and driving and it now comes down very hard indeed on those who ignore the rules. Best just to avoid alcohol altogether.

10/ Breathalysers: From 1 July 2012 it has been compulsory to carry self testing breathalyser kits in the car while driving in France. Two are advised in case one is used and a fine of 15 Euros will be issued after 1 November 2012.

11/ Speed: Be aware of the speed limits and the fact that police officers abroad can and will impose on the spot fines. The speed limits vary by country and even within a country they may vary in different conditions such as in wet weather or poor visibility. General speed limits can also be varied by local signage so keep your wits about you as you drive.

Speed limits are generally lower if you are towing, and may be lower if you have held a licence for less than 2 years.

Driving in much more open roads abroad can be a real joy, and a little thought and planning will make sure it stays that way.

Summary of the Key requirements:

Euro driving rules